Obesity in Women of Reproductive Age

Obesity in Women of Reproductive Age

  • Dilafruzhon Ravshanovna Maksudova Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  • Khurshidakhon Kudratullayevna Nasyrova Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Keywords: Obesity, Reproductive Disorders


This article provides information about the relationship between obesity and disorders of the reproductive system. Lifestyle factors are changeable habits and lifestyles that can greatly affect overall health and well-being, including fertility. Overweight contributes to menstrual cycle disorders, infertility, miscarriage, unfavorable pregnancy outcome, deterioration of fetal well-being and diabetes mellitus.


Flegal K.M. Carroll, MD. Ogden KL. Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends of obesity among the adult population of the United States, 1999-2008. JAMA. 2010;303:235-241.

Flegal K.M. Graubar B.I. Williamson DF. Gail MH. The cause of specific excess mortality associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. JAMA. 2007;298:2028-2037.

Malynik S.D. Nobler H. Medical complications of obesity. QJ Med. 2006;99: 565-579.

Abenheim H.A. Kinch RA. Maureen L. Benjamin A. Asher R. The effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index categories on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;275: 39-43.

Kaiser P.S. Kirby RS. Obesity as a risk factor for cesarean section in a low-risk population. Obstetrics Gynecol. 2001;97: 39-43.

Vs V. Townsend M.K. Okereke OI. Franco O. Hu FB. Grodstein F. Obesity and weight change in middle age in relation to healthy survival of women after 70 years: a prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009;339:b3796.

Stefanska A. Sypnevskaya G. Blashkesich B. Ponikowska I. Sternel L. Khoinowski J. Prolonged weight gain and metabolic syndrome, adiponectin and C-reactive protein in women aged 50-60 years. Adv Med Sci. 2010;22:1-5.

Suzuki R, Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Sawada N, Yamaji T, Shimazu T, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Group. Body weight at age 20 years, subsequent weight change and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status--the Japan public health center-based prospective study. Int J Cancer. 2011;129(5):1214-24. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25744.

Anstey KJ, Ee N, Eramudugolla R, Jagger C, Peters R. A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses that Evaluate Risk Factors for Dementia to Evaluate the Quantity, Quality, and Global Representativeness of Evidence. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;70(s1):S165-S186. doi: 10.3233/JAD-190181.

Manson J. E. Willett toilet. Stampfer MJ et al. Body weight and mortality among women. N Engl J Med. 1995;333: 677-685.

Hung TH, Hsieh TT. Pregestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes among Taiwanese women: A retrospective cohort study. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;55(4):575-81. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2016.06.016.

Johnson K, Posner SF, Biermann J, Cordero JF, Atrash HK, Parker CS, Boulet S, Curtis MG; CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group; Select Panel on Preconception Care. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care--United States. A report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(RR-6):1-23.

Ashton DM, Lawrence HC 3rd, Adams NL 3rd, Fleischman AR. Surgeon General's Conference on the Prevention of Preterm Birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(4):925-930. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31819bdba3.

Roberts K. The corpse of N. Konnan F. Treasure J. Campbell I.S. The effect of stress on body weight: biological and psychological predictors of BMI changes. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15 :3045-3055.

Block JP. He is Y. Zaslavsky AM. Dean L. Ayanian JZ. Psychosocial stress and weight change among adults in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 170: 181-192.

Sammel MD. Grissot J.A. Freeman E.V. et al. Weight gain in women of late reproductive age. Pham Prakt. 2003; 20:401-409.

Wang Yu. Beidun M.A. The obesity epidemic in the United States — gender, age, socio-economic, racial/ethnic and geographical characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Ed. 2007; 29 :6-28.

Bravman P.A. Kubbin K. Egerter S. Williams DR. Pamuk E. Socio-economic differences in health status in the United States: what patterns tell us. Am J Public Health. 2010; 100 (Appendix 1): S186–196.

Fowler-Brown AG. Bennett GG. Goodman MS. Vi KK. Corby-Smith GM. James SA. Psychosocial stress and 13-year BMI change among Blacks: A Pitt County study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17:2106-2109.

Purslow L.R. Young EH. Wareham, New Jersey, et al. Socio-economic status and risk of short-term weight gain: a prospective study of 14,619 middle-aged men and women. Public Health BMC. 2008; 8 :112.

Weisman CS, Hillemeier MM, Chase GA, Dyer AM, Baker SA, Feinberg M, Symons Downs D, Parrott RL, Cecil HK, Botti JJ, MacNeill C, Chuang CH, Yost B. Preconceptional health: risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes by reproductive life stage in the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS). Womens Health Issues. 2006;16(4):216-24. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2006.01.001.

Dean SV, Mason E, Howson CP, Lassi ZS, Imam AM, Bhutta ZA. Born too soon: care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action. Reprod Health. 2013;10 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S3. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-S1-S3.

Garrow J.S. Webster Index J. Ketle (w/h2) as an indicator of fatness. Int J. Obes. 1985; 9 : 147-153.

Huber LRB. Reliability of self-assessment of height and weight in women of reproductive age. Matern Child Health J. 2007; 11:137-144.

Ferguson B. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 9th Ed. 2014. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2014 Sep;58(3):328.

Committee on Obstetric Practice. ACOG committee opinion. Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Number 267, January 2002. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;77(1):79-81. doi: 10.1016/s0020-7292(02)80004-2.

Chiolero A. Faeh D. Paccaud F. Cornuz J. The effects of smoking on body weight, body fat distribution and insulin resistance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87 : 801-809.

Weisman CS, Hillemeier MM, Downs DS, Chuang CH, Dyer AM. Preconception predictors of weight gain during pregnancy: prospective findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study. Womens Health Issues. 2010;20(2):126-32. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2009.12.002.

Sherbourne CD, Dwight-Johnson M, Klap R. Psychological distress, unmet need, and barriers to mental health care for women. Womens Health Issues. 2001;11(3):231-43. doi: 10.1016/s1049-3867(01)00086-x.

Oniike KU. Cram RM. Li HB. Liketsos KG. Eton VV. Is obesity related to major depression? Results of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination. Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 158: 1139-1147.

Williamson D.F. Kahn HS. Remington PL. Anda RF. 10-year frequency of overweight and significant weight gain in adults in the USA. Arch Intern Med. 1990; 150 : 665-672

Rissanen A. Heliovaara M. Aromaa A. Overweight and anthropometric changes in adulthood: a prospective study of 17,000 Finns. Int J. Obes. 1988; 12 : 391-401.

Lewis K.E. Jacobs D.R., Jr. McCreath H. and others . Weight gain continues in the 1990s: 10-year trends in weight and overweight from the CARDIA study. The development of coronary artery risk in young people. Am J Epidemiol. 2000; 151 :1172-1181.

Schulz M, Kroke A, Liese AD, Hoffmann K, Bergmann MM, Boeing H. Food groups as predictors for short-term weight changes in men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. J Nutr. 2002;132(6):1335-40. doi: 10.1093/jn/132.6.1335.

Tiggemann M. Dietary restriction and self-esteem as predictors of weight gain over an 8-year period. Eat behavior. 2004; 5: 251-259.

American Diabetes Association. Summary: Standards of medical care for diabetes mellitus — 2010 Diabetes care. 2010; 33 (Appendix 1): S4–S10.

Lloyd-Jones D.M. Hong Y. Labarthe D, et al. Defining and setting national goals to strengthen cardiovascular health and reduce morbidity: The Strategic Goal of the American Heart Association's Impact for the period up to 2020 and beyond. Circulation. 2010; 121: 586-613.

Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(5):373-8. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00475.

Files JA, David PS, Frey KA. The patient-centered medical home and preconception care: an opportunity for internists. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(9):1518-20. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0657-2.

Yun S. Zhu B.P. Cherny V. Brownson RC. Comparison of national estimates of the prevalence of obesity according to the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int J Obes (London) 2006; 30 : 164-170.

Engstrom J.L. Paterson SA. Doherty A. Trabulsi M. Spear K.L. Accuracy of self-assessment of height and weight in women: a comprehensive review of the literature. J Obstetric women's Health. 2003; 48:338-345.

Jain RB. Regression models for predicting adjusted weight, height and prevalence of obesity based on data reported by users: BRFSS data for 1999-2007. Int J Obes (London) 2010; 34 : 1655-1664.

Krul AJ, Daanen HA, Choi H. Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America. Eur J Public Health. 2011;21(4):414-9. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckp228.

Wane S, van Uffelen JG, Brown W. Determinants of weight gain in young women: a review of the literature. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19(7):1327-40. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2009.1738.