Advances in Clinical Medical Research http://acmrjournal.com/index.php/acmr <p><strong>Advances in Clinical Medical Research (ACMR)</strong> is an open-access, freely accessible, online and print quarterly peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research on all medical specialties including ethical and social issues. ACMR is a gateway to enlighten the latest research/issues happening all around the world of medical and health sciences.</p> Advances in Clinical Medical Research 2 Oakfield Place, St. Paul's Road, Clifton, Bristol, England, United Kingdom- BS8 2BJ Phone: +44-7833277351 en-US Advances in Clinical Medical Research 2635-0815 Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children: Is Antibiotic Prophylaxis Really Necessary? http://acmrjournal.com/index.php/acmr/article/view/18 <p><strong>Background: </strong>To assess the risks of developing of urinary tract infection in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, depending on the grade of hydronephrosis. <strong>Materials and Methods. </strong>The present retrospective study, which was conducted from 2013 to 2018 years, includes data of 131 children with antenatally diagnosed grade III and IV hydronephrosis (SFU). All patients underwent surgical treatment at the age from 3 months to 3 years and did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis. Urinary tract infection was diagnosed in the presence of WBC in urine sample (&gt; 10 WBC/field of view), positive bacterial growth ( 105 CFU/ml) and fever ( 38.5 <em><sup>◦</sup> </em>C). Children with duplex system, obstructive megaureter, vesicoureteral reflux, posterior urethral valve, and neurogenic bladder were excluded from this study. <strong>Results. </strong>Grade III hydronephrosis was detected in 113 children and grade IV in 18 patients. The total incidence of urinary tract infection was 9.2% (12 patients), while in the group&nbsp;&nbsp; of children with grade IV hydronephrosis it was higher (in 3 of 18 - 16.7%) than in children with grade III (in 9 out of 113 - 7.9%) (P &lt;0.05). The incidence of urinary tract infections did not differ significantly depending on the sex or age of the patients. In 7 (58.3%) patients, urinary tract infection was noted before the age of 6 months, with an average age of 2.7 months. A bacteriological study revealed that in eight (66.7%) patients, E. Coli was the causative agent of urinary tract infection. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. Children with antenatal diagnosed and postnatal confirmed ureteropelvic junction obstruction do not need antibiotic prophylaxis because of the low incidence of urinary tract infection. However, patients with grade IV hydronephrosis under the age of 6 months should be closely follow-up by physicians for the early diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection.</p> Abdusattor A. Nosirov Temur T. Narbaev Fatkhulla F. Bayakhmedov Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-05-06 2021-05-06 2 2 1 4 Hyperpigmentation and Melasma: Causes, the Efficacy of Cosmelan Treatment http://acmrjournal.com/index.php/acmr/article/view/19 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>hyperpigmentation is a frequent complaint, making up about 8.5% of all calls to dermatologists. They can be congenital, with dif- ferent types of inheritance or acquired due to external factors, systemic diseases. This article will focus on acquired hyperpigmentation associated with elevated melanin levels. Particularly it should be emphasized aspects of therapy, with particular attention to melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation. <strong>Results: </strong>Within a week, the appearance of the treated skin is noticeably improved. Skin type has a big influence on the effect of the treatment. People with skin phototype IV and V (dark skin) may notice that the effect will start faster because after 8-10 days. People with phototype I and II notice the disappearance of spots from 8 to 21 days. The overall effect of Cosmelan treatment should be up to 30 days. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>If we approach the correction of pigment formation from these positions, it becomes obvious that the effect in the skin should be as complex, soft and gentle as possible. Otherwise, there is a risk of getting not only a local reaction opposite to the desired one, but also harm the patient, aggravating the existing cosmetic defect and social psychological maladjustment of the personality.</p> Gulnoza Kambarova Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-05-06 2021-05-06 2 2 5 8 Environmental Pollution and Population Disorders: A Brief Communication http://acmrjournal.com/index.php/acmr/article/view/20 <p>Most diseases in society have a complicated epidemiology including various chemical influences such as biology, diet and environmental pollution (EP). “The most dangerous contaminants included particulate matter (PMs), nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, pesticides, hormones, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)”. Indeed, there are countless potential contaminants and most have never been assessed as toxic and health hazards, particularly when new chemicals are constantly being developed as a result of interactions with existing chemicals. The effects of these new substances on wellbeing are almost difficult to assess. Previous reports show a wide range of pollution-related diseases. EP has been linked to an elevated prevalence of some malignancies, an increase in all-cause mortality, coronary disease progression, recurring illnesses, “disrupted intellectual and psychomotor development in infants, type 2 diabetes, breathing and immune system as well as brain-degenerative disorders.” EP is a significant reason of mortality and morbidity around the globe, initiating high expenditures in health care. Ecological, biological and toxicological testing is needed to determine the environmental toxins and at what amounts are most dangerous to animals and humans. It will only be possible to enhance environmental security by interdisciplinary collaboration and public awareness-raising programs.</p> Debraj Mukhopadhyay J. Swaminathan Soham Basu Atreyee Bhattacharyya Parth Patel Dattatreya Mukherjee Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-05-06 2021-05-06 2 2 9 12 Damage Control the Liver and Spleen in Case of Concomitant Injury (Literature Review) http://acmrjournal.com/index.php/acmr/article/view/21 <p>Until now, the issues of diagnosis and treatment tactics for abdominal injuries remain relevant and far from resolved. The complexity of their diagnosis is often due to the erasure of clinical manifestations, simultaneous damage to various organs of the abdominal cavity and the presence of combined injuries. Thus, concomitant traumatic brain injury with impaired consciousness leads to an increase in the probability of нeundiagnosed injuries to internal organs. The state of shock distorts the clinical picture of the ”acute abdomen”, and the more severe it is, the less pronounced the symptoms of intra-abdominal catastrophe become.</p> Ishnazar Boynazarovich Mustafakulov Khushvakt Alisherovich Umedov Hudoyberdi Karabaevich Karabaev Zilola Aramovna Djuraeva Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 2 2 13 17