Hyperpigmentation and Melasma: Causes, the Efficacy of Cosmelan Treatment

Hyperpigmentation and Melasma

  • Gulnoza Kambarova Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Keywords: Cosmetology, Dermatology, Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation, Hyperpigmentation, Melisma

Abstract

Introduction: hyperpigmentation is a frequent complaint, making up about 8.5% of all calls to dermatologists. They can be congenital, with dif- ferent types of inheritance or acquired due to external factors, systemic diseases. This article will focus on acquired hyperpigmentation associated with elevated melanin levels. Particularly it should be emphasized aspects of therapy, with particular attention to melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation. Results: Within a week, the appearance of the treated skin is noticeably improved. Skin type has a big influence on the effect of the treatment. People with skin phototype IV and V (dark skin) may notice that the effect will start faster because after 8-10 days. People with phototype I and II notice the disappearance of spots from 8 to 21 days. The overall effect of Cosmelan treatment should be up to 30 days. Conclusion: If we approach the correction of pigment formation from these positions, it becomes obvious that the effect in the skin should be as complex, soft and gentle as possible. Otherwise, there is a risk of getting not only a local reaction opposite to the desired one, but also harm the patient, aggravating the existing cosmetic defect and social psychological maladjustment of the personality.

References

1. Rendon M, Berneburg M, Arellano I, Picardo M. Treatment of melasma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54(5):272–281. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2005.12.039.
2. Grimes PE. Melasma: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Dermatol . 1995;131:1453–1460. Available from: https:
//doi.org/10.1001/archderm.131.12.1453.
3. Ogbechie-Godec OA, Elbuluk N. Melasma: an Up-to-Date Comprehensive Review. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2017. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13555- 017-0194-1. doi:10.1007/s13555-017-0194-1.
4. Passeron T, Picardo M. Melasma, a photoaging disorder. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2018;31(4):461–465. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12684.
5. McKesey J, Tovar-Garza A, Pandya AG. Melasma Treatment: An Evidence-Based Review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2020;21:173–
225. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40257-019- 00488-w.
6. Trivedi MK, Yang FC, Cho BK. A review of laser and light therapy in melasma. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017;3:11–20. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.01.004.
7. Kwon SH, Na JI, Choi JY, Park KC. Melasma: Updates and perspectives. Experimental dermatology. Exp Dermatol. 2019;28:704–712. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/exd. 13844.
8. Taraz M, Niknam S, Ehsani AH. Tranexamic acid in treatment of melasma: A comprehensive review of clinical studies. Dermatol Ther. 2017;30:12465. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10. 1111/dth.12465.
9. Espósito ACC, Brianezi G, de Souza NP, Santos DC, Miot LDB, Miot HA. Ultrastructural characterization of damage in the basement membrane of facial melasma. Arch Dermatol Res . 2020;312:223–227. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s00403-019-01979-w.
Published
2021-05-06